Thursday, March 12, 2020

American Civil War - Battle of Hampton Roads

American Civil War - Battle of Hampton Roads The Battle of Hampton Roads was fought March 8-9, 1862, and was part of the American Civil War. Fleets Commanders Union Flag Officer Louis M. GoldsboroughLieutenant John L. Worden1 ironclad, 2 screw frigates, 2 frigates, 1 sloop of war Confederate Flag Officer Franklin Buchanan1 ironclad, 3 gunboats, 2 tenders Background Following the outbreak of the Civil War in April 1860, Confederate forces seized the Norfolk Navy Yard from the US Navy. Prior to evacuating, the Navy burned several ships in the yard including the relatively new steam frigate USS Merrimack. Commissioned in 1856, Merrimack only burned to the waterline and most of its machinery remained intact. With the Union blockade of the Confederacy tightening, Confederate Secretary of the Navy Stephen Mallory began searching for ways in which his small force could challenge the enemy. Ironclads One avenue that Mallory elected to follow was the development of ironclad, armored warships. The first of these, the French La Gloire and British HMS Warrior, had appeared in the last year. Consulting John M. Brooke, John L. Porter, and William P. Williamson, Mallory began pushing the ironclad program forward but found that the South lacked the industrial capacity to build the needed steam engines in a timely manner. Upon learning this, Williamson suggested using the engines and remains of the former Merrimack. Porter soon submitted revised plans to Mallory that based the new ship around Merrimacks powerplant. Approved on July 11, 1861, work soon began at Norfolk on the casemate ironclad CSS Virginia. The interest in ironclad technology was also shared by the Union Navy which placed orders for three experimental ironclads in mid-1861. Key among these was inventor John Ericssons USS Monitor which mounted two guns in a revolving turret. Launched January 30, 1862, Monitor was commissioned in late February with Lieutenant John L. Worden in command. Aware of Confederate ironclad efforts at Norfolk, the new ship departed New York Navy Yard on March 6. CSS Virginia Strikes At Norfolk, work on Virginia continued and the ship was commissioned on February 17, 1862, with Flag Officer Franklin Buchanan in command. Armed with ten heavy guns, Virginia also featured a heavy iron ram on its bow. This was incorporated due to the designers belief that ironclads would be unable to harm each other with gunfire. A distinguished veteran of the US Navy, Buchanan was eager to test the ship and sailed on March 8 to attack Union warships in Hampton Roads despite the fact that workmen were still on board. The tenders CSS Raleigh and Beaufort accompanied Buchanan. Steaming down the Elizabeth River, Virginia found five warships of Flag Officer Louis Goldsboroughs North Atlantic Blockading Squadron anchored in Hampton Roads near the protective guns of Fortress Monroe. Joined by three gunboats from the James River Squadron, Buchanan singled out the sloop of war USS Cumberland (24 guns) and charged forward. Though initially unsure what to make of the strange new ship, Union sailors aboard the frigate USS Congress (44) opened fire as Virginia passed. Returning fire, Buchanans guns inflicted significant damage on Congress. Engaging Cumberland, Virginia pounded the wooden ship as the Union shells bounced off its armor. After crossing Cumberlands bow and raking it with fire, Buchanan rammed it in an effort to save gunpowder. Piercing the Union ships side, part of Virginias ram detached as it was withdrawn. Sinking, Cumberlands crew gallantly fought the ship until the end. Next, Virginia turned its attention to Congress which had grounded in an attempt to close with the Confederate ironclad. Joined by his gunboats, Buchanan engaged the frigate from a distance and compelled it to strike its colors after an hour of fighting. Ordering his tenders forward to receive the ships surrender, Buchanan was angered when Union troops ashore, not understanding the situation, opened fire. Returning fire from Virginias deck with a carbine, he was wounded in the thigh by a Union bullet. In retaliation, Buchanan ordered Congress be shelled with incendiary hot shot. Catching on fire, Congress burned throughout the rest of the day exploded that night. Pressing his attack, Buchanan attempted to move against the steam frigate USS Minnesota (50), but was unable to inflict any damage as the Union ship fled into shallow water and ran aground. Withdrawing due to darkness, Virginia had won a stunning victory, but had taken damage amounting to two guns disabled, its ram lost, several armored plates damaged, and its smoke stack riddled. As temporary repairs were made during the night, command devolved to Lieutenant Catesby ap Roger Jones. In Hampton Roads, the situation of the Union fleet improved dramatically that night with the arrival of Monitor from New York. Taking a defensive position to protect Minnesota and the frigate USS St. Lawrence (44), the ironclad awaited Virginias return. Clash of the Ironclads Returning to Hampton Roads in the morning, Jones anticipated an easy victory and initially ignored the strange-looking Monitor. Moving to engage, the two ships soon opened the first battle between ironclad warships. Pounding each other for over four hours, neither was able to inflict significant damage on the other. Though Monitors heavier guns were able to crack Virginias armor, the Confederates scored a hit on their adversarys pilot house temporarily blinding Worden. Taking command, Lieutenant Samuel D. Greene drew the ship away, leading Jones to believe that he had won. Unable to reach Minnesota, and with his ship damaged, Jones began moving towards Norfolk. At this time, Monitor returned to the fight. Seeing Virginia retreating and with orders to protect Minnesota, Greene elected not to pursue. Aftermath The fighting at Hampton Roads cost the Union navy the loss of USS Cumberland and Congress, as well as 261 killed and 108 wounded. Confederate casualties were 7 killed and 17 wounded. Despite the heavier losses, Hampton Roads proved a strategic victory for the Union as the blockade remained intact. The battle itself signaled the demise of wooden warships and the rise of armored vessels built of iron and steel. Over the next several weeks a standoff ensued as Virginia attempted to engage Monitor on several occasions but was refused as Monitor was under presidential orders to avoid battle unless absolutely required. This was due to President Abraham Lincolns fear that the ship would be lost allowing Virginia to take control of the Chesapeake Bay. On May 11, after Union troops captured Norfolk, the Confederates burned Virginia to prevent its capture. Monitor was lost in a storm off Cape Hatteras on December 31, 1862.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Best Crucible Act 1 Summary

Best Crucible Act 1 Summary SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips The first act of The Crucible sets the stage (literally, heh) for the disturbing sequence of events that will unfold in Acts 2, 3, and 4. Most of the major characters are introduced, and there are critical insights into various political and personal conflicts that threaten to disrupt the social order in the town of Salem. We also learn how the witchcraft craze got started and why it spiraled out of control. This article will go over the very important sequence of events and their thematic relevance so you can answer all the questions your English teacher throws at you. I'll provide both a short summary and a long summary. The short summary is just the bare bones of what happened without getting into too much detail about conversations that are less relevant to the central plot. It's more of a review to read after you've already gone through the play yourself. The long summary, which I'm choosing to call the "oops, I didn't read it" summary, is more in-depth. It goes through everything that occurs in Act 1 without getting too far into the weeds. Despite the title of the second summary, I urge you to actually read the play so you have a stronger understanding of the voices of the characters and the thematic points Miller is trying to make. Also, if you don't read it you'll miss out on some amazing stage directions that can be easily misinterpreted as giggle-worthy euphemisms if you're as immature as me and my fellow blog writers. The CrucibleAct 1 Summary - Short Version Ten-year-old Betty Parris has contracted a mysterious illness that renders her mute and bedridden. Her father, Reverend Samuel Parris, caught her dancing in the woods the night before with a group of girls. The group included his teenage niece, Abigail Williams, and his slave, Tituba. Rumors have spread around town that witchcraft is the cause of Betty’s illness, and people are now gathered at the Parris household. Parris questions Abigail about the rumors, but she claims the girls were just dancing. Ann Putnam says that her daughter, Ruth, who was with the group in the woods, is also afflicted with a strange illness. All of Ann’s children except Ruth have died as infants. Ann sent Ruth to Tituba in hopes that she would be able to communicate with her siblings and find out who or what was responsible for their deaths. To her uncle's dismay, Abigail admits that Tituba and Ruth were conjuring spirits in the woods. Abigail and two girls named Mercy Lewis and Mary Warren, who were also in the woods, are left alone with Betty. They try to wake her up as they get their story straight. Betty blurts out that Abigail drank chicken blood in an attempt to cast a spell that would kill Elizabeth Proctor, and Abigail warns her to keep quiet (or else). John Proctor enters the room, and Mercy and Mary leave Abigail alone with him. John and Abigail had an affair when Abigail worked as a servant in his house, and Abigail wants it to continue. John insists that he has recommitted himself to his wife, Elizabeth. Betty whimpers when she hears the Lord’s name in a psalm that people are singing outside the room. Everyone who is singing outside the room rushes in to check on her. Betty's distress is taken as additional evidence of witchcraft by Ann Putnam, and some of the others start to come around to this theory as well. An intellectual church leader named Reverend Hale arrives from the town of Beverly to investigate the situation and see if he can detect any signs of witchcraft. Abigail confesses that Tituba called the Devil after more details about the previous night are revealed. Tituba isn’t allowed to tell her side of the story (that Abigail was actually the instigator), and when she is threatened with hanging she confesses that she’s been forced to work for the Devil. She also names Sarah Good and Sarah Osburn as fellow witches after prompting by Parris and Hale. Abigail and Betty then admit their unwilling involvement in witchcraft and shout out the names of several other womenwho they claim to have seen with the Devil. I want YOU to join my plot to totally mess with a super lame town in Massachusetts. The CrucibleAct 1 Summary - â€Å"Oops I Didn’t Read It† Version Act 1 opens on a bedroom in Reverend Samuel Parris’ house in the spring of 1692.Parris’ daughter, 10-year-old Betty, is in a deep sleep as a result of an unknown illness, and Parris is kneeling in prayer next to her bed.A woman named Tituba is introduced as the Parris family's middle-aged slave from Barbados; she tries to check on Betty, but she is immediately ordered out of the room by Reverend Parris. Abigail Williams, Parris’ 17-year-old niece, enters the room.She tells him that Susanna Walcott is there with a message from the doctor.Susanna is a teenager a little younger than Abigail.She says that the doctor can't find anything physically wrong with Betty, and they should start to consider supernatural forces as a potential culprit.Parris is very concerned about damage to his reputation if witchcraft is discovered in his house. He urges Susanna to tell the doctor to continue looking for medical reasons for Betty’s condition. However, he has also summoned Reverend Hale from the neighboring town of Beverly to quietly investigate whether there is any truth to this supernatural hypothesis. Susanna leaves, and Abigail and Parris are alone with Betty.Abigail reveals that the rumor of witchcraft has already spread around town, and many people are gathered in the parlor of the house.Parris is reluctant to discredit these rumors because he fears they may be true.The previous night, he saw Abigail and Betty dancing in the forest with Tituba. He also saw a dress on the ground and a girl running naked through the woods. Abigail says that they were just dancing, but Parris knows that she’s not telling the whole truth.Parris demands to know whether witchcraft was involved. He thinks that his reputation is shaky in town and that there’s a group of people who would like to oust him from his position of power.He doesn’t want one of his enemies to find out what really happened before he does and use it against him.Abigail continues to insist that the girls were just dancing. Parris still doesn’t trust her, and he brings up another suspicious scenario.Abigail was dismissed from the household service of a man named John Proctor without explanation, and Proctor’s wife Elizabeth seems to strongly dislike her.Abigail says Elizabeth is just a big ol’ meany and she didn’t do anything to deserve this. At this point in the conversation, a tormented middle-aged woman named Ann Putnam enters the room along with her husband, Thomas Putnam.Ann’s only daughter, Ruth Putnam, is acting catatonic, and Ann thinks Betty is afflicted with the same apparently supernatural illness.Ann is a firm believer in witchcraft because seven of her babies have died in infancy, leaving her with only one living child. She sees no possible explanation for this that is not supernatural in nature. The Putnams are glad that Parris has summoned Reverend Hale to investigate the situation because Hale supposedly caught a witch in Beverley recently. Parris is still trying to shut down the witchcraft conversation because of the damage it might do to his reputation.Ann reveals to Parris that she actually sent Ruth to consult with Tituba the night before because Tituba can communicate with the dead.Ann wanted Ruth to talk to her dead siblings and find out who killed them.The Putnams say they are convinced that a baby-killing witch is running rampant.Abigail realizes that she can’t hide the truth completely now that Ann has revealed that she sent Ruth to Tituba to try and communicate with the dead.Abigail admits that Tituba and Ruth were conjuring spirits.Parris is convinced his livelihood is ruined now that someone who lives under his roof has been revealed to be a witch. ThomasPutnam tells Parris he should get ahead of the situation and make the witchcraft accusations himself so no one can accuse him first. A girl named Mercy Lewis, who is Putnam’s servant, arrives to check on how Betty is doing, and the Putnams and Parris leave so that Parris can lead everyone in a psalm.Abigail and Mercy are left alone, and they try to rouse Betty to no avail.The two girls decide their official story will be that they were just dancing, and there was no magic involved. Then, another teenage girl named Mary Warren enters the room.She was also with them in the forest the previous night, and she is convinced they must confess to what they’ve done because of the rumors swirling around. Suddenly, Betty gets a burst of energy.She reveals that Abby drank chicken blood in the forest in an attempt to cast a spell to kill Elizabeth Proctor.Abigail slaps her and tells everyone that they had better stay quiet about the details of what really happened. Abigail says that she's seen some stuff (i.e. her parents were murdered by Native Americans right in front of her), so she has no qualms about resorting to violence to force them to keep her secret. John Proctor, a farmer, then enters the room.He yells at Mary Warren, who is his servant, for leaving his house when he forbid her from doing so.Mary and Mercy both leave, and Abigail and John are left alone. Abigail and John had an affair that was discovered by his wife, which was the reason for her dismissal from their household. Abigail is still in love with Proctor, but he wants to distance himself from her and recommit to Elizabeth.Abigail is angry and frustrated that he won’t return her advances.She insults his wife and continues to insist that he still loves her. Their attention is diverted because Betty starts whimpering after the words â€Å"going up to Jesus† are uttered in the psalm people are singing in the other room. ReverendParris, the Putnams, and Mercy Lewis all rush in to check on her.Ann Putnam is convinced that they upset Betty by saying the Lord’s name and that her reaction clearly means that she is bewitched with black magic. Rebecca Nurse, and old and highly respected woman in Salem, enters the room along with an old man named Giles Corey.Rebecca stands calmly next to the bed,and Betty quiets down.Everyone is impressed with this, and the Putnams ask if Rebecca can also help Ruth, but Rebecca doesn't think there's anything supernatural going on. Betty is just acting up as kids are prone to do. John Proctor questions Reverend Parris on his decision to summon Reverend Hale. This action seems to imply that Parris believes witchcraft could be the source of Betty’s illness.Rebecca suggests that they should rely on the doctor and avoiding bringing Reverend Hale into the situation because it will cause unnecessary conflict.Thomas Putnam takes issue with this, and he tells Parris that when Reverend Hale arrives they must look for signs of witchcraft. Proctor says Putnam can’t tell Parris what to do just because Putnam owns a lot of land in the town.Putnam fires back that he hasn’t seen Proctor in church recently, so he clearly doesn’t care that much about upholding the integrity of their society.Proctor claims he doesn’t go to church because all Parris talks about is Hell.Parris says that a lot of people in Salem need to hear more about Hell because he hasn’t been properly compensated for his job based on his qualifications.He then implies that Proctor is the leader of a faction against him in the church.Proctor is unaware of the existence of this faction, but he says he would gladly join it because he’s fed up with Parris’ superiority complex. He expects Giles Corey to be on his side, but Giles unexpectedly suports Parris because he thinks there may be something to the witchcraft hypothesis.Giles has been in court six times that year for various lawsuits. He says that everyone has been suing each otherleft and right, so there must be some sort of dark magic going on behind the scenes.Proctor points out that Giles is the cause of many of these suits because he is always suing people for defamation for no reason. Proctor and Putnam argue briefly about who owns a certain tract of land near the woods where Proctor plans on gathering lumber.It turns out that there is a lot of ambiguity in Salem over who owns which tracts of land because in his will Putnam’s grandfather claimed land that he didn’t actually own. Reverend Hale enters the room with a stack of academic books.He speaks briefly with everyone, and it’s clear that he’s well-respected. Hale views the investigation of witchcraft as serious scientific inquiry.He makes everyone agree not to push the issue if he doesn’t find anything pointing to the Devil’s work.He brought the books because they explain all the different forms the Devil can take. With this information on hand, he's sure that he can find out whether Betty's illness is linked to the work of Satan. Rebecca Nurse is skeptical of the whole situation, and she leaves the room before Hale begins his investigation.Giles tries to consult Hale about his wife, Martha, who he says has been reading strange books.He is worried that this might signify something sinister because he was unable to say his prayers while she was reading.Hale is somewhat intrigued and says they can discuss the issue later. Hale addresses Betty, asking her if someone is bewitching her. Betty does not respond to his questions at first.Abigail is pressed with more questions about what exactly was going on in the woods.Parris says that when he came upon the girls, he saw that they had a kettle with a frog in it.Faced with this damning evidence of black magic, Abigail admits that Tituba called the Devil.Tituba is dragged into the room to face these charges.Immediately, Abigail places all the blame on her, claiming that Tituba made her drink chicken blood from the kettle.Tituba protests that Abigail was the one who instigated the meeting in the woods, but she is drowned out by further accusations from Abigail.Parris and Hale also talk over her attempts to explain herself. Parris says Tituba must confess to what she’s done or he will whip her to death, and Putnam says she must be hung.Tituba is terrified, so she breaks down and says the Devil forced her to work for him.She claims someone else is bewitching Betty because she’s seen other people with the Devil.Putnam, Parris, and Hale encourage her to tell them who she has seen (and plant the names of Goody Good and Goody Osburn in her mind as potential witches).They claim that after renouncing her allegiance to the Devil, she is now God’s instrument in the village sent to help them uncover the full extent of his Satanic plot. Tituba says the Devil told her to kill Reverend Parris, and he promised her a better life if she worked for him.She claims that she saw Goody Good (Sarah Good) and Goody Osburn (Sarah Osburn) with the Devil.Goody Osburn was Ann Putnam’s midwife three times, so this accusation confirms the Putnams' suspicions that witchcraft was involved in the deaths of their babies.Abigail soon chimes in with her own hysterical set of confessions, claiming thatshe saw the Devil and wrote in his book.Abigail adds more people to the list of the accused.Betty suddenly wakes up and joins her in shouting out additional accusations.Hale and Parris rejoice at Betty's apparent miraculous recovery.Putnam summons the marshal so that they can arrest the witches and bring them to justice. The Devil apparently has some kind of special friendship book that he makes people sign when they join his crew. Adorable. The CrucibleAct 1 Quotes In this section, I'll go over a few quotes that I think are important in establishing the themes and characterizations that emerge in Act 1. â€Å"I have fought here three long years to bend these stiff-necked people to me, and now, just now when some good respect is rising for me in the parish, you compromise my very character.† (Reverend Parris pg. ) This quote shows the gravity with which Parris views his position in the town and the degree of authority he thinks should accompany it.He’s less focused on spreading the word of God than on exploiting his position as a religious authority so he can gain greater power in the community. Now his reputation may be ruined, which means he’ll be back to square one and have to rebuild the control he has worked so hard to acquire. â€Å"My name is good in the village! I will not have it said my name is soiled! Goody Proctor is a gossiping liar!† (Abigail Williams pg. 12) The value of a person's name is a recurring topic in The Crucible. Reputation is hugely important to these characters because it’s inextricably linked to respect and power in a highly interdependent community. Here Abigail shifts the focus away from her own reputation by trashing the reputation of Goody Proctor.If she can convince people that Goody Proctor is not to be trusted, the rumors about her own sins will lose credibility. â€Å"Let either of you breathe a word, or the edge of a word, about the other things, and I will come to you in the black of some terrible night and I will bring a pointy reckoning that will shudder you. And you know I can do it; I saw Indians smash my dear parents’ heads on the pillow next to mine, and I have seen some reddish work done at night, and I can make you wish you had never seen the sun go down!† (Abigail Williams pg. 19) Abigail threatens the other girls with violence if they dare tell anyone that she tried to kill Goody Proctor with black magic. This quote tells us that Abigail has experienced severe emotional trauma in the past that almost certainly affects her current mental state.It also gives us a taste of how far she’s willing to go to achieve her desired outcome and/or exact revenge. â€Å"I look for John Proctor who took me from my sleep and put knowledge in my heart! I never knew what pretense Salem was, I never knew what lying lessons I was taught by all these Christian women and their covenanted men! And now you bid me tear the light out of my eyes?† (Abigail Williams pg. 22) Abigail pleads with John Proctor to continue their affair, which she feels has enlightened her to the hypocrisy that permeates Salem’s culture.She can’t go back to her ignorant state after she’s already seen the light, and the affair is the only outlet available to her to feel special and different within a community where she has little power or outlets for honest expression.After John's rejection, her angst will find another, even more destructive path to follow. â€Å"There are wheels within wheels in the village, and fires within fires!† (Ann Putnam pg. 26) Ann Putnam says this because she’s convinced that there are supernatural Satanic forces conspiring against her that have led to her family misfortunes.However, this quote has a much broader secular meaning that applies to the events in the play overall.There are all kinds of underlying motivations that trigger accusations of witchcraft in Salem.Petty vengeance, greed, and jealousy are festering beneath the surface of an outwardly respectable community, and they’re about to find their release. â€Å"We cannot look to superstition in this. The Devil is precise; the marks of his presence are definite as stone, and I must tell you all that I shall not proceed unless you are prepared to believe me if I should find no bruise of Hell upon her.† (Reverend Hale pg. 35) From our modern viewpoint, this quote is a very strong example of irony. Bysearching for marks of the Devil’s presence in the first place, Hale has already subscribed to superstition.People are also condemned throughout the rest of the play for involvement with the Devil when there’s absolutely no hard evidence besides the word of one other person.Hale's adherence to scientific principles will give him just enough insight to see the injustices that have been committed in Salem after it's too late for him to turn back the tide of hysteria. I'm not sure what Hale expected to find. A pentagram ankle tattoo? A little souvenir pitchfork? A button that says "Satan 4 Prez"? Eh, I guess there are a lot of possibilities. The CrucibleAct 1 Thematic Analysis Let's go over some of the play's key themes and how they relate to the first act. Irony Irony and hypocrisy are recurring concepts in The Crucible. There are several exchanges in Act 1 that are rife with irony. Abigail claims that John Proctor opened her eyes to the pretenses of Salem (pg. 22). She realized all the lies she’d been told by people who supposedly adhered to the conventions of respectable society.However, in distress from Proctor’s refusal to acknowledge their relationship, Abigail creates her own lies that give her increased control over the society she resents.By putting on a false front to advance her status and get what she wants, she becomes just like the hypocrites she claims to despise. The most prominent example of dramatic irony in this act is the quote from Hale (pg. 35) that was explained in the last section. Hale claims that they must avoid superstition and hasty conclusions in their investigation of Betty’s affliction. We, the modern audience, know that searching for "the Devil's marks" as the potential cause of an ailment is an inherently superstitious practice. Hale, however, is convinced that a scientific inquiry based only on facts and reality can be conducted to detect a supernatural presence. Hysteria In Act 1 it becomes clear how mass hysteria can evolve out of desires for self-preservation. When Abigail admits that Ruth and Tituba were conjuring spirits, Thomas Putnam urges Parris to go on the offensive immediately with this information. If he makes his own accusations of witchcraft, he will prevent others from accusing him first and putting his credibility at stake. As rumors of witchcraft spread, this fear-driven philosophy will be universally adopted, leading to more and more accusations and an environment of paranoia. The speed at which rumors morph into accepted truths is too rapid for a few rational voices to contain them. Although Parris only calls Reverend Hale to examine Betty as a precaution, people assume that Hale’s involvement means there must be a supernatural element to her illness.Even as Parris tries to avoid supernatural explanations to protect his reputation, he is quickly caught up in the misplaced interpretations of others and forced to adopt them as his own so that he isn't gobbledup by the hysteria monster. It becomes abundantly clear that people see only what they want to see (i.e. whatever keeps them in the good graces of society) in situations that don't appear to have easy rational explanations. Ann Putnam, for example, will seize at any opportunity to blame supernatural forces for the deaths of her children.Extreme conclusions like Ann's "a witch murdered my babies with black magic" are accepted because rational people are too afraid to challenge this consensus and risk bringing accusations upon themselves. Reputation Reverend Parris' concerns about his reputation take center stage, so to speak, in Act 1. Parris initially insists that there are â€Å"no unnatural causes† for Betty’s illness, not because he’s devoted to science and rationality, but because he fears that he will be disgraced if witchcraft is discovered under his roof.He interrogates Abigail because he’s worried his enemies will learn the full story first and use it to discredit him. Once he gets confirmation from Abigail that some witchy business happened in the woods, he is quick to position himself on the side of the accusers and threaten violence on Tituba if she doesn't confess (pg. 42). He has no central belief system beyond a desire to do what makes him look best in the eyes of the majority. Abigail is also concerned about her reputation. She is enraged when Parris insinuates that there was something untoward about her dismissal from the Proctors’ service.She insists that she has done nothing wrong and tries to discredit Elizabeth Proctor to divert attention away from her own actions. "My name is good in the village! I will not have it said my name is soiled! Goody Proctor is a gossiping liar!" (pg. 12). These actions and reactions in Act 1 establish the importance that characters place on maintaining respect for their names. A poor reputation can severely affect a person’s position in this small, interdependent society, whether the assumptions or rumors swirling around are true or not. Power and Authority The church has a great deal of power in Salem, and therefore much of the authority we see exercised in the play is associated with religion. Reverend Parris is currently in a position of power as the town's spiritual leader. However, he is convinced there is a faction in town that is determined to unseat him, and he will say and do whatever it takes to retain control.He demands unconditional respect for his authority as God’s instrument in the community. From his point of view,"There is either obedience or the church will burn like Hell is burning!" (pg. 28) Abigail, on the other hand, struggles to claim greater agency outside of traditional means. Her dominant personality doesn't fit with her low status in society as a young woman with no family. Initially, she sees a path to higher standing in society through becoming John Proctor’s wife. When he rejects her, she takes another route to power through accusations that exploit the fears of others to a point where even the most respected people in town are afraid to challenge her. The power structure in Salem is also responsible for the blame heaped on Tituba and the misinterpretations that follow.Tituba has the least authority out of anyone, so it’s easy for Abigail to use her as a scapegoat. IfTituba was permitted to explain what really happened, the tragic events of the rest of the play might have been prevented. However, she is only given a voice when she agrees to corroborate the version of events that the people in traditional positions of authority believe to be accurate.She becomes, according to Hale, "God's instrument put in our hands to discover the Devil's agents among us" (pg. 44) after she renounces her presumed allegiance to the Devil and accepts her role as a pawn to be used by those with greater power. As has been the case throughout history in both fiction and reality, the desire for power ends up costing way too many innocent people their lives. The Crucible Act 1 Summary:Conclusion In Act 1 of The Crucible, the roots of the witch hysteria are established, and we learn critical background information about many of the characters. Let's do a super short bullet point recap of the important plot points: The play is set in the town of Salem, MA, and the year is 1692. Betty Parris, a young girl, is sick, but no one can figure out why. Rumors spread around town that she's been bewitched. Betty's dad is Reverend Parris, the new-ish church leader in Salem, who is paranoid about his reputation amongst the townspeople. Abigail Williams, Reverend Parris' teenage niece and Betty's cousin, is questioned by Parris about the cause of Betty's illness. He knows that Abigail, Betty, and Parris' slave, Tituba, were dancing in the woods the night before and perhaps conducting some kind of ritual. Abigail claims there was no witchcraft involved. Abigail had an affair with a farmer named John Proctor while serving in his house, and she's still into him, but he wants to forget it ever happened. Betty says that Abigail tried to put a curse on John's wife, Elizabeth Proctor, in order to kill her and take her place, but no one else knows about this, and Abigail warns her to keep quiet. Reverend Hale, the church leader from the town of Beverley, is summoned to examine Betty because he's an expert on witchcraft. Tituba is accused of calling the Devil in the woods based on Abigail's testimony, and she confesses under pressure from Hale. Tituba names Goody Good and Goody Osburn as fellow witches after their names are suggested. Abigail plays the victim and accuses more women of witchcraft. Betty wakes up and makes accusations of her own, following Abigail's lead. In Act 2, you can look forward to learning more about the state of the Proctors' marriage and just how crazy things have gotten in Salem in the weeks after the initial accusations. Also, John Proctor throws a few more tantrums borne of emotional immaturity, so get PUMPED. What's Next? If you want a complete summary of the whole play rather than just one act, we've got you covered. Check out our holistic summary article to review what happens from start to finish. Looking for some in-depth analysis of characters in The Crucible? Read our complete assessments of John Proctor, Abigail Williams, Rebecca Nurse, Giles Corey, and Mary Warren. If you want some advice on understanding the ideas behind the play so you can write a killer essay or ace your next test, read our guide to the most important themes in The Crucible. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Monday, February 24, 2020

Business Case Study Review Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Business Case Study Review - Essay Example -Hello- I am not asking for anything different than what is in the attached insturctions. All steps 1-5 were included in request where an action plan is step 5. Please compelte this and 2 days is fine I will fix the rest. Â   The initial instruction: To read the case study and apply all of the steps as indicated on my attachment. You can use bullets but make sure all steps are answered for the McDonalds "Seniors" Case Study I did answer all the steps 1-4 in bullet form for that is what you requested. Step 5 cannot be answered in bullet form so I assumed it was not part of the task. Furthermore your order consists of 4 pages only at 250 words a page. That would amount to a mere 1000 words. With this bullet answers, we have already covered 1498 words. We have exceeded the word limit by 498 words already. you are not obliged to do any extra work for free. If you have completed the paper up to the initial instructions, please upload the same file to the order page and advise the Customer to place a new order. Or let us know for mow many extra pages we should charge him, if the additional work pertains to this paper 5. No documents have been forwarded. All information is from observations of the Manager. Data on population of the town: number and ages- can be obtained from national statistics office if the town; data on average number of elderly that stay up to 3pm or mid afternoon can be recorded by the door guard. All information is from observations of the Manager hence it is a first hand account and very reliable. The source definitely has an interest in the case since she is the manager and it is her responsibility. 8. The problem is urgent because the number of elderly staying for prolonged periods is increasing. The impact of other possible effects relative to this cannot be estimated at this time but immediate action is better than a singed reputation. 9. The stakes are high. If the manager is unable to find a

Friday, February 21, 2020

HR Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

HR - Essay Example But, if you try to please everyone by doling out good reports, your seniors might question your judgment and ability to differentiate between good and bad workers. Therefore, most of the initiating officers tend to take the performance appraisal process as a millstone round their necks. 2. Definition Wikipedia (2011) described performance appraisal as a systematic method of evaluating an individual’s on the job performance against pre-determined standards and his/her potential for the future responsibilities usually by his supervisors or managers. 3. Purposes of Performance Appraisal One may count as many as twelve purposes of performance appraisal; however, the most basic is to provide information about job performance. Following are the important purposes of performance appraisal:- 3.1 Basic Purpose. The basic purpose of performance appraisal is to get information about how people are doing their jobs and find the problems affecting the overall performance of individuals (Mu rphy & Margulies 2004). 3.2 Judgmental Purposes In judgmental perspective, performance appraisal may provide a basis for reward allocation, identification of high performance/high potential individuals and low performance/low potential individuals. ... 4. Benefits The process of performance appraisal helps both the managers and the workers by providing employees an opportunity to indicate the direction and level of their ambitions. It induces leaders to take interest in their subordinates’ development which in turn becomes a motivation tool in helping the organization to retain the ambitious and capable personnel instead of losing them to the competitors. It identifies areas where specific training is needed, desired, or available. Performance appraisal can be used as a motivational and encouragement tool for employees who have been trying to perform well (Rao 2004). Performance appraisal is also a means for communicating and documenting dissatisfaction in respect of unacceptable employee performance. It provides a reliable basis for making a myriad of organizational decisions concerning promotions, deputation, rewards, postings at key appointments, etc. 5. Process for Performance Appraisal Since a good report can qualify th e individual for more important responsibilities, more rewarding assignments and promotion to higher ranks, therefore, a development plan should be preferably tailor made for each employee. In general way, a development plan should include the following steps:- 5.1 Analyze Job Duties and Responsibilities Job duties and responsibilities should be clearly spelled out and be available in written form for the benefit of the organization as well as the individual (Elizabeth et al. 2006). 5.2 Establish Standards of Job Performance Standards of performance for each job should be established and known to both initiating officer and the subordinate (Ziagon

Saturday, February 8, 2020

The Notion of True Belief Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

The Notion of True Belief - Essay Example This paper will begin with a brief introduction to some of the crucial, but general aspects of the author’s position, and in turn, proceed to a more pointed discussion of the nature of the notion of belief, according to Audi. According to Audi, the notion of ‘belief’ can loosely be translated as opinion or belief, and it is a term which comes from the Ancient Greek. To claim, or to maintain that there is an ideal form of a belief, is to defend the belief in some sense. For Audi , he presents at the first level, the notion of a belief in terms of the connection with the notion of knowledge â€Å"through acquaintance† [Audi, 2003, p. 36], which is a notion which was developed by Russell. He argues that there is sufficient evidence, through the knowledge by acquaintance notion that a belief is justified as a form of knowledge if the object of the belief in question has some form of ‘propositional content’ or â€Å"inference from propositions abou t them† [Audi, 2003, p. 36]. That is, where there is a correspondence between the propositional content on the one hand, and on the other hand, the belief which there is supposed to be a relation with. For example, and in keeping with Russell’s notion of acquaintance, there is a difference between the propositional content of a sensible referent, and one which is connected with rationality or mathematics [Audi, 2003, p. 58]. That is, if I can say that I believe that the sun will rise tomorrow, it follows that the propositional content of the belief in question refers to a sensible phenomena on the one hand, and the laws of probability or the nature of experience which would lead me to believe in such a proposition [Audi, 2003, p. 37]. However, those which are connected with acquaintance are a form of knowledge where the propositional content does not necessarily have a sensible referent involved. For example, the belief in the truth of a mathematical proposition. For ex ample, it might be said that the proposition F(N){N +1 + 1 . . .}, is a proposition which has a potentially infinite chain of sequences of integers which will follow. This is an example of knowledge by acquaintance in the following regard: first, it is not a form of propositional content which has a truth which is guaranteed through experience, and second, it is obvious that nobody could experience this in the first place. However, there is the experience of acquaintance. That is, the familiarity with the mathematical reasoning involved with the proposition. That is, where the consequence which cannot necessarily be demonstrated through ‘sense’, can be demonstrated by the very rules of mathematics. As is noted by Audi, this has always been an important aspect for the consideration of theological or religious questions in the â€Å"medieval† context, which he describes in terms of the â€Å"analytic† dimensions of the concept of belief [Audi, 2003, p. 97]. As Audi points out in these pages, the notion of form which is connected to analytic truths are important in a number of senses which are germane to the notion of acquaintance. As a form of knowledge which is of rational truths, it is not the case that the truths are guaranteed by anything more than the rules which govern the given proposition, and it is important that they are known to be beyond sense experience, and hence, beyond the form of reductive thinking which

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

U.S and the world Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

U.S and the world - Research Paper Example Get directly to the point, prove the point critically from the evidence, and conclude your paper. This paper should be between 8-10 pages, the cumulative work from both papers.   One of the key focal points in the American history that aim to solve the enigma of the isolationist policy of American politics is indeed very interesting to study. The birth of a new nation undoubtedly sparked the interest of international nations as well. After the Spanish American war, the Americans wanted peace and stability of mind. Undoubtedly, the US could remain as an isolationist as it continued to expand outward. Even looking back at history, the country’s attempt to remain an isolationist during both World War II was not susceptible. The US verily had to enter both World Wars since it became a leader in the Western frontier. The United States returned to isolationist foreign policy since domestic problems plagued the country. Furthermore, Europe was in chaos itself and the US could not afford to indulge itself in such petty issues. However, one can argue that the isolationist policy did have some ramifications towards American diplomacy. The United States embodied the foreign policy of isolationism into an international role because it wanted to strengthen its capitalistic economy, address reform, acknowledge immigration and continue to pursue its beautiful American dream even though it lost threshold in foreign affairs. The colonies themselves wanted to be domestically involved as many had entered American in search of new provisions. The roots of isolationism were well established years before independence [2]. A brilliant testament towards this theory can be clearly seen through the decision of the Continental Congress to reject help from France during the War of 1812 [4]. The notion of America to remain independent was because of the exerted influence by the forefathers and Thomas Paine’s Common Sense.

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Tech Writing Essay Example for Free

Tech Writing Essay As you may have recently heard, lately we received news from the corporate headquarters that it would be in the best interest of the entire company to pay more attention to matters of preventing accidents and any other safety-related measures that affect the workplace, including both office and field activities related to all types of jobs that we complete. Every single employee in each office at every branch needs to be mindful in this regard so that he/she is most efficient and effective in the daily performance of his/her everyday tasks that relate to their job responsibilities so that safety is always of paramount concern. With this goal of safety ever present in our minds, I believe the bottom line of the emphasis on safety could be considered to be the training that each of us receives in his/her first initial weeks on the job as well as the training provided on a regular basis throughout each year of our employment with M-Global, so that we are always aware of how to operate in a safe manner. The training video gives the company the mechanism to provide each of you with the means to become aware of the elements of safety that relate to the specific needs and requirements of your own particular job. Therefore, at this point in time I have come to the conclusion in the process of contemplating the relevance of the new corporate emphasis on safety to our particular branch that we need, as a branch, to give much greater scrutiny and analysis to the way we can prevent accidents and emphasize the concern of safety at every stage of our operation for every employee. Toward the end I have asked the training coordinator Kendra Jones to assemble a written training program that will involve every single employee and that can be implemented beginning no later than June of this year. When the plan has been written and approved at the various levels within the office, I will conduct a meeting with every department in order to emphasize the major and minor components of this upcoming safety program. It is my great pleasure to announce to all of you that effective in the next month (February) I will give a monthly safety award of $100 to the individual branch employee at any level of the branch  who comes up with the best, most useful suggestion related to safety in any part of the branch activities. Today I will take the action of placing a suggestion box on the wall of the lunchroom so that all of you will have an easy way to place suggestions for safety into the pipeline and to be considered. As an attachment to the memo you are now reading from me, I have provided you with a copy of the form that you are to use in making any suggestions that are then to be placed in the suggestion box. On the last business day of each month, the box will be emptied of the completed forms for that month, and before the end of the following week a winner will be selected by me for the previous month suggestion program, and an announcement will be placed by me on the bulletin board in the company workroom. If you have any questions in regard to the corporate safety program as it affects our branch or about the suggestion program that is being implemented here at the Denver office at M-Global, please do not hesitate to make your comments known either in memorandum form or by way of telephone response to this memorandum.